Filipino Migration to the United States
Dean T. "Carl Damaso: A Champion
of Hawaiis Working People",
John Okamura (guest editor), Filipino
American History: Identity and Community
in Hawaii. Honolulu: Social Process
in Hawaii, vol. 37, University of Hawaii
at Manoa, 1996, pp. 26-35.
is a biography of Carl Damaso, a post-war
Filipino labor leader in Hawaii, and
his efforts to improve the conditions
of Filipino laborers in Hawaii.
Leonard Y. "From American-Filipino
to Filipino-American," John Okamura
(ed.) Filipino American History: Identity
and Community in Hawaii, vol. 37,
a Filipino-American born and raised
in Maui, recounts his youthful days
living in a sugar plantation. He explains
the transformation of many Filipinos
in the U.S. from being American-Filipino
to Filipino-American as a result of
rediscovering their ethnicity and identity.
Carlos. America is in the Heart: A
Personal History. New York: Harcourt,
Brace & Company, 1941.
is Bulosans "autobiographical"
narrative of life as a peasant boy in
northern Philippines and as a migratory
worker on the West Coast of the United
States. This is an excellent historical
account of the tragedies and triumphs
of thousands of migrant Filipino workers
who lived in the turbulent 1920s and
"As Long As the Grass Shall Grow,"
Epifanio San Juan and Ninotchka Rosca
(editors), Carlos Bulosan: Selected
Works and Letters. Honolulu: Friends
of the Filipino People, 1982.
is a short story on the experience of
a young migrant Filipino laborer in
California who faced the violence and
racism of white Americans in his efforts
to become educated.
Roman R. "The Filipinos in Hawaii:
A Survey of their Economic and Social
Conditions." Masters thesis,
University of Hawaii, 1936. Also published
by the Filipino Public Relations Bureau,
historical sketch of the early Filipino
migration, followed by a survey of the
economic and social conditions of Filipino
migrant workers in the plantations in
the 1930s. Cariaga concludes that plantation
life resulted in changes in the customs
and ways of migrant Filipinos.
Melinda Tria. "Interpreting Pablo
Manlapit", John Okamura (ed.)
Filipino American History: Identity
and Community in Hawaii, vol. 37,
examines the life of Pablo Manlapit
as a labor leader and the First Filipino
lawyer in Hawaii amidst the labor strikes
of the 1920s and 1930s.
Brett H. "Californias Discrimination
Against Filipinos, 1927-1935," Roger
Daniels and Spencer Olin, Jr. Racism
in California: A Reader in the History
of Oppression. New York The Macmillan
Company, 1972, pp. 141-151.
outlines the personal and economic hardships
experienced by Filipino migrant workers
in California resulting from racism.
Melendy notes that among all Asian groups
in the 1920s and 1930s, Filipinos suffered
most because they occupied the bottom
of the wage scale, faced all forms of
discrimination, and did not have a sovereign
government to speak on their behalf.
Buenaventura, Steffi. "Filipino Immigration
to the United States," The Asian
American Encyclopedia. New York: Marshall
Cavendish, 1995: 439-453.
brief survey of the different waves
of Filipino migration to the U.S. from
the educated Filipinos who studied in
the U.S. as pensionados to the
1965 Naturalization and Immigration
Act, which paved the way for an exodus
of Filipinos, either as relatives of
earlier migrants or professionals, in
"Hawaiis 1946 Sakada,"
John Okamura (ed.) Filipino American
History: Identity and Community in Hawaii,
vol. 37, pp. 74-90.
is an account of the last, wide scale
organized Filipino labor migration to
Hawaii. San Buenaventura contends that
the 1946 Sakadas were different because
they were educated, family oriented,
and included more women and children
compared to the pre-World War II migrants.
"The Master and the Federation: A
Filipino-American Social Movement in California
and Hawaii," Jonathan Okamura et.
al. (editors), The Filipino American
Experience in Hawaii (Honolulu:
Social Process in Hawaii vol. 33, Department
of Sociology, University of Hawaii at
Manoa, 1991), pp. 169-193.
Reynaldo Iletos work, San Buenaventura
examines the Filipino Federation of
America, popularly known as Moncadista,
as a social movement in Hawaii. Camilo
Moncada, a charismatic Filipino leader
in Hawaii, led a popular movement drawing
inspiration from the life of Jesus Christ.
Based on San Buenaventuras doctoral
Nativism and Ethnicity in a Filipino-American
Experience. Ph.D. Thesis, University of
dissertation of San Buenaventura is
the definitive work on the history of
the Filipino Federation of America,
a widely popular social movement in
Hawaii whose ideology was derived from
the Pasyon, the story of the life and
death of Jesus Christ.
Ronald. In the Heart of America: Immigrants
from the Pacific Isles. Adapted by
Rebecca Stefoff with Carol Takaki. New
York and Philadelphia: Chelsea Book Publishers,
of the series on Asian Americans in
the U.S., this is a brief survey of
Filipino immigration to the U.S. It
discusses the Filipinos struggle
for acceptance amidst racial prejudice,
work discrimination, and underemployment.
Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor
in Hawaii, 1835-1920. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii Press, 1983.
excellent account of the plantation
life and labor in Hawaii. Takaki explains
how ethnicity played a major role in
A Filipino American Oral History. Stockton:
Filipino Oral History Project, Inc., 1984.
is an invaluable account of the experiences
of Filipino Americans in California
as related by the migrants themselves.
Philippines: The Sakada Generation. Honolulu:
KITV Telecast, March 14, 1996; VHS, 60
min, color with b&w sequences.
is a 1996 TV documentary on the history
of the migration of Filipino sakadas
to Hawaii. Prominent Filipino-American
scholars, some of whom are children
of these Filipino migrant laborers,
are interviewed to reflect on the Filipino
experience in Hawaii. Half of the video
chronicles the visit of Govenor Benjamin
Cayetano to the Philippines and the
tour of Manila and northern Luzon by
an American TV reporter, whose own father-in-law
was a migrant Filipino laborer.
a Day, 10 Cents a Dance: A Historic Portrait
of Filipino Farm Workers in America.
New York: Cinema Guild, 1984; VHS, 30
narration and pictures, Filipino agricultural
workers in California reminisce about
their early experiences and struggle
against the discrimination, bigotry
and violence of white America.
Americans: Discovering their Past for
the Future. [S.l.]: Filipino American
National Historical Society; Seattle,
Washington: Distributed by Wehman Video
Distribution, 1994; VHS, 54 min.
video consisting of footage and interviews
traces the history of Filipino migration
to the U.S. from the Louisiana Filipinos
in the late nineteenth century to the
in Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: KHET TV,
1991; VHS, 30 min., color with black and
series of interviews of several Filipinos
in Hawaii who recount their growing
up years in the plantation and how their
culture was preserved in art, music,
Ni Bonipasyo: Kasla Gloria Ti Hawaii
[Bonifacios Story: Hawaii is Like
Paradise] Honolulu, HI: Center for Philippine
Studies, 1991; VHS tape, 150 min.
is a contemporary three-act play on
the experiences of Filipino migrant
workers in Hawaii as seen in the life
of Bonipasyo, a sakada who came
to the islands in 1922. It is a dramatization
of his struggle against discrimination,
loneliness, and abuse.
Los Angeles, CA: Visual Communications,
1978; VHS, 30 min., color with black and
video explains how the Filipinos came
to the U.S. after the American acquisition
of the Philippines. Interviews and pictures
are used to reminisce the experiences
of the first wave of Filipino migrant
laborers in the West Coast.
Tagalog Talks of Early Days in Waipahu.
Pearl City, HI: Leeward Community College,
1977; VHS tape, 15 min.
short video on family and plantation
life in Waipahu.