The Philippine-American War
Antonio K. General Macario L. Sakay: Was He a Bandit
or a Patriot? Manila: J.B. Feliciano & Sons,
is the story of the struggle of General Macario Sakay
to continue the war against the United States when
most Filipino generals surrendered or were captured.
Americans portrayed Sakay as a bandit to discredit
Pedro S. de, S.J. and Bernad, Miguel, S. J. Aguinaldo
and the Revolution of 1896: A Documentary History.
Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1972.
chronologically-arranged compilation of documents
covering the first two years of the Philippine Revolution.
English translations accompany the original text,
and each document contains a brief introduction about
the source and its historical setting
Teodoro. Malolos: The Crisis of the Republic.
Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1960.
the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, Agoncillo
concludes that the ascendancy of the ilustrados,
or middle class, sealed the fate of the Revolution.
They betrayed the masses and the revolution.
Warwick. "Where Every Prospect Pleases and
Only Man is Vile: Laboratory Medicine as Colonial
Discourse," Vicente L. Rafael, Discrepant Histories:
Translocal Essays on Filipino Cultures. Manila:
Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1995, pp. 83-112.
examines how the early American perceptions of the
Philippines and the Filipinos reinforced the colonial
discourse and shaped American health and sanitation
David. Sitting in Darkness: Americans in the Philippines.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984.
book focuses on the two characters of the Philippine
Revolution, General Emilio Aguinaldo (President of
the Philippine Republic) and General Frederick Funston
(the American military adventurer responsible for
the capture of Aguinaldo). In 1982, Bain literally
followed the footsteps of Aguinaldo and Funston in
northern Luzon. In the process, Bain relived the events
leading to their confrontation and the fall of the
Philippine Republic in 1901.
James H. The American Occupation of the Philippines,
1898-1912. New York and London: G.P. Putnams
on his personal knowledge and observations, Blount
accounts for the American annexation and pacification
of the Philippines. He served as Officer of the U.S.
Volunteers in the Philippines in 1899-1901 and a U.S.
District Judge assigned to the Islands in 1901-1905.
Writing in 1912, he advocated for Philippine independence
since the Filipinos are one people, one race, one
color, and whose political unity was forged by their
common struggle for independence.
Luzviminda. "The Philippine-American War,"
Daniel B. Schirmer and Stephen R. Shalom, The Philippines
Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship,
and Resistance. Boston: South End Press, 1987, pp.
essay proves that because of the scale, duration,
casualties, and nature of the conflict, the Philippine-American
War should be regarded as the United States
John. Schoolbooks and Krags: the United States Army
in the Philippines, 1898-1902. Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press, 1973.
this work Gates rehabilitates the U.S. Armys
reputation during the Philippine-American War of committing
brutality and unspeakable atrocities against the Filipinos.
Instead, he focuses on the benevolent and humane activities
undertaken by American soldiers in the field of education,
public health, municipal government, and others.
Reynaldo. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements
in the Philippines, 1840-1910. Quezon City: Ateneo
de Manila University Press, 1979.
this widely praised, ground-breaking work, Ileto utilizes
the Pasyon, the story of the life and death of Jesus
Christ, to probe the psyche of the Filipinos and to
explain the persistence of social movements in Philippines
"Cholera and the Origins of the American Sanitary
Order in the Philippines," Rafael, Discrepant
Histories: Translocal Essays on Filipino Cultures.
Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1995 pp. 51-82.
this essay, Ileto argues that the cholera epidemic
in 1902-1903 should be viewed as another episode in
the Philippine-American War, when scientific medicine
replaced weapons and teachers in the United States
efforts to pacify the Filipinos.
The Story of the Filipino People. Vol. 5: "The
Reform and Revolution" and Vol 6: "Under Stars
and Stripes." Manila: Asia Publishing Co.: Pleasantville,
N.Y.: Readers Digest, 1998.
is a ten volume account of the history of the Philippines
by leading Filipino historians and scholars. Volume
5 is a comprehensive and analytical account of the
ilustrado-led Reform Movement and the Katipunan-initiated
James. The Americans in the Philippines: a History
of the Conquest and First Years of Occupation. Boston
and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.
is a two volume account of the conquest, pacification,
and early years of the American occupation of the
Cesar Adib. Mabini and the Philippine Revolution.
Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1996.
is more than simply a biography of Apolinario Mabini,
the Brains of the Philippine Revolution. Majul examines
the brilliance of Mabini who, as chief adviser of
Emilio Aguinaldo, charted the course of the country
from a dictatorship, to a Revolutionary government,
and, finally, to a Republic.
The Political and Constitutional Ideas of the Philippine
Revolution. Quezon City: University of the Philippines
this book, Majul asserts that the Philippine Revolution
was not a purposeless upheaval; rather its philosophy
can be traced to the ideas of the French Enlightenment
and in fact it drew inspiration from the revolution
in Europe and the Americas.
Glenn. Battle for Batangas: A Philippine Province
at War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
fuels controversy in this examination of the Philippine-American
War in Batangas, a Tagalog province south of Manila.
He rejects previously accepted explanations, popularized
by Teodoro Agoncillo, that the Philippine Revolution
was a revolt of the masses. Instead, he argues that
the experience of Batangas was unique because it was
the political and economic elite of the province who
became the backbone of local resistance, serving as
military leaders and extending financial and other
forms of assistance to the revolutionary troops.
Daniel. Republic or Empire: American Resistance to
the Philippine War. Cambridge: Schenkem Publishing
is the story of the Anti-Imperialist League and its
efforts to hinder the imperialist course of the United
States at the turn of the century. Its prominent members
vigorously opposed the American war campaign in the
Philippines, calling it an unjust war of conquest.
Leon. Little Brown Brother: Americas Forgotten
Bid for Empire Which Cost 250,000 Lives. New York:
Kraus Printing Co., 1970.
in 1961, this is a sympathetic interpretation of the
Philippine-American War. Wolff concludes that the
entire episode constituted a "forcible annexation
[that] was morally wrong."
United States and the Philippines: In Our Image. Alexandria,
VA: PBS Video, 1989. VHS, 3 videocassettes of 58 min.
each, pt. 1, 2 & 3.
videotapes survey Philippine-American relations from
the United States acquisition of the Philippines
at the turn of the nineteenth century to the People
Power Revolution of 1986. The series examine how the
United States had shaped the Philippines in its image.
Bloody Blundering Business or the Price of Empire.
S.l: Cinema Guild, 1992. VHS, 30 min.
good account of the seething debate between the annexationists
and anti-imperialists at the turn of the century.
The video highlights the brutality of American troops
during the Philippine-American War.
Acts: Wars, Fairs and Empire. New York: American
Social History Productions, Inc., 1995. VHS, 30 min.
documents, pictures, and film clips narrate the story
of American imperialist expansion and the acquisition
of the Philippines. It also dramatizes the racism
in the St. Louis World Fair of 1904 where the Igorots,
an upland ethnic group in northern Luzon, were displayed
as "savage possessions" of the United States.