Filipino Migration to the U.S.

Sakada '46

Due to war casualties and the transfer of many plantation workers to defense industry work during the war, Hawaii plantations had a labor shortage immediately after the war. To keep the plantations operational, the U.S. granted Hawaii’s request for exemption from the immigration law and to import thousands of Filipino labor before the granting of Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 . Around 6,000 men, 446 women, and 915 children came as sakadas in 1946. This batch, called Sakada ‘46, was different from the earlier groups of migrant Filipinos because they were more educated, having been the products of the American colonial education in the Philippines. In contrast with earlier migrants who mostly came alone, they also brought their families with them. Many of them were also families and relatives of the pre-war sakadas. The Sakada ‘46 was the last major, organized Filipino migration to the U.S. In the post-war period, a different pattern of Filipino migration to the U.S. had emerged. They consisted of immediate families of migrant Filipinos in the U.S., more professionals, and more women and children.